Docker Tutorial Part 4 -> Understanding components: docker-machine, Dockerfile, Images and Containers

In our previous blog post Docker setup and installation on Ubuntu , we have done installation of docker. Now before diving deep in to hands on of Docker, its time to understand what are all components or terminology.

Following are some major components of Docker-

  1. Docker-Machine
  2. Docker Engine
  3. Dockerfile
  4. Docker Images
  5. Docker Containers

Docker-Machine – This can also be referred as Docker Host. If you are working on a Linux machine then your Linux system itself is a Docker-machine / Docker host. But if you are working with Boot2Docker on windows, then your Linux VM inside Oracle virtual box is the docker-machine. In case of Windows(Boot2Docker), you can have multiple docker-machine and can also create new using below command-

docker-machine create --driver virtualbox <suitable machine name>

Docker Engine – Docker engine is the core of Docker, it is the main software/package which drive all docker commands and enable user to create images and containers. This is a lightweight and powerful open source containerization technology combined with capabilities to build and ship your applications

DockerFile – Dockerfile is a plain text file with no extension. It has series of  instructions which needs to be perform to create a docker image. Instruction are some docker specific commands which when executed in sequence generates a docker image. If you have a dokerfile, you can easily create an image from it with a custom name. Every instruction when executed, stored in a layer. A sample dockerfile with python looks like below-

FROM ubuntu:14.04
RUN apt-get update && \
apt-get install -y python python-dev python-pip python-virtualenv && \
rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*
CMD [“bash”]

Docker images – Docker image is a blue print of what you need in a container. Docker image is build up from a series of layers. Each layer represents an instruction in the image’s dockerfile. Each layer except the last one is read-only. To understand the concept at high level, you can consider an image as a Class and container as object of that class. Object is a run time entity similar to container. Like a class can have many objects of it, An image can have multiple containers out of it.

Docker container – Docker container is a lightweight execution environment to build and ship your application. This is just your docker image in action.

Lets understand the difference with an analogy. Consider your Dockerfile as some file. Now when you build/compile file you get .class file (docker image). Now when you can create multiple objects(containers) of class image), and these objects can be referred as Docker containers. So in the end the run time entity on which you will actually work is Container.

In the next blog post , we would be learning about running your local source code in to container

To know more in details, hands-on and for personal / corporate training please reach out to –


Docker Tutorial Part 3 -> Setup and installation on Ubuntu

Installing docker on Linux is as simple as installing any other Linux package, We don’t require the whole Docker toolbox for working with docker on Linux.

In this blog post, I will be talking about installing community edition installation of Docker.

To install Docker, you need the 64 bit version of either one of below Ubuntu-

  • Xenial 16.04 (LTS)
  • Trusty 14.04 (LTS)
  • Yakkety  16.10

Uninstall older version of Docker – Older version of Docker called docker or docker-engine. if you have these then uninstall them, otherwise skip this part

sudo apt-get remove docker docker-engine

Install Docker – You can install the Docker in different ways, as per your needs

  1. Setup docker repositories and install from them – this is easy in installation and upgrades (recommended approach)
  2. Download the DEB package and install it manually and also manage upgrades manually (prefer when lack of internet access)

Install using Repository – If you are doing the setup for the first time on a new host machine, you need to setup the docker repository. Then you can use the same repository for install and updates

  • Install packages to allow apt to use a repository over HTTPS:
sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https ca-certificates curl software-properties-common
  • Add Docker’s official GPG key :
curl -fsSL | sudo apt-key add -
  • Verify that the key fingerprint is 9DC8 5822 9FC7 DD38 854A E2D8 8D81 803C 0EBF CD88
sudo apt-key fingerprint 0EBFCD88

pub   4096R/0EBFCD88 2017-02-22
      Key fingerprint = 9DC8 5822 9FC7 DD38 854A  E2D8 8D81 803C 0EBF CD88
uid                  Docker Release (CE deb) <>
sub   4096R/F273FCD8 2017-02-22
  • use the below command to setup the stable repository
sudo add-apt-repository \
   "deb [arch=amd64] \
   $(lsb_release -cs) \
  • Update the apt package
sudo apt-get update
  • Install the latest / specific version of Docker with below commands
sudo apt-get install docker-ce   //for latest version
sudo apt-get install docker-ce=  //for specific version
  • Verify that Docker CE is installed correctly by running a sample hello-world docker image-
sudo docker run hello-world
  • You should see something like below if your installation is successful and complete


If you guys face issues in installation , please mention in comments section.

In the next blog post , we would be learning docker terminology and different docker components

To know more in details, hands-on and for personal / corporate training please reach out to –

Docker Tutorial Part 2 ->Getting started with Docker: Setup and Installation on Windows

Now we have the basic understanding of docker technology, lets go ahead and do the installations. if you are still not aware about it, please go back and read my post Docker technology overview: How is it different from virtual machines and come back here.

Please make sure virtualization is enabled in your Windows system and follow below steps to install Docker toolbox on Windows-

  • Click on the link and download docker toolbox from – Get Docker Toolbox for Windows
  • Docker toolbox will include following docker tools – (Don’t worry, we will cover each of them in upcoming blog posts)-
  1. Docker CLI client for running Docker Engine to create images and containers
  2. Docker Machine for running Docker Engine commands from Windows terminal
  3. Docker Compose for running docker-compose command
  4. Docker Kinematic – ( Docker GUI – for interactive docker operations)
  5. Oracle VM Virtual box
  6. Git MSYS-git UNIX tools
  • Docker Engine uses Linux-specific kernel features, we can’t run Docker Engine natively on Windows. (So indirectly you will be creating containers inside a small Linux VM running in the Oracle virtual box). The new Docker for Windows uses native virtualization and does not need Virtual box to run docker. (lets stick to this as of now for learning purpose)
  • Install the executable which you downloaded in first step. double click and keep following installation instructions. Once you done with installation, you will see below icons on your desktop-


  • Click on the Docker quick start to launch the toolbox terminal. After this if it asks for any permissions, press yes. When its started, you will see a terminal displays $ prompt
  • Now type command docker and you will see all help options for docker as below-

dockerinstallationNow you are good to go and play around docker images and containers. You can give a try to a hello-world docker images. This image checks for your installation and print success message if installation is correct. Type “docker run hello-world” on terminal and hit Enter.

In the next blog post , we will learn about doing setup on Linux environment 🙂

To know more in details, hands-on and for personal / corporate training please reach out to –